HUBUNGAN ANTARA RESILIENSI DENGAN STRES PENGASUHAN PADA IBU YANG BEKERJA SELAMA PANDEMI COVID-19

Farhani Dea Asy-Syifa, Mustikasari Mustikasari

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Perempuan yang menjadi ibu sekaligus pekerja merupakan salah satu subjek yang paling terdampak dari perubahan aktivitas kerja selama pandemi Coronavirus Disease-19 (Covid-19).  Kemampuan resiliensi berperan penting untuk menghadapi situasi sulit sehingga resiliensi menjadi salah satu faktor individu ibu bekerja untuk tidak mengalami dampak psikologis berkelanjutan. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi hubungan antara resiliensi dan stres pengasuhan pada ibu yang bekerja selama pandemi Covid-19. Metode: Desain penelitian kuantitatif dengan rancangan penelitian cross sectional. Penelitian melibatkan 296 responden dengan kriteria ibu bekerja selama pandemi Covid-19, memiliki anak usia 0–12 tahun, tinggal di Jakarta Timur. Jenis non-probability sampling yang digunakan ialah convenience/accidental sampling. Kuesioner yang digunakan ialah The 14-item Resilience Scale dan Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Analisa data yang digunakan analisis univariat dengan tampilan data tendensi sentral (data numerik), frekuensi persen (data kategorik), dan analisis bivariat dengan uji chi square. Hasil: Hasil penelitian didapatkan lebih dari separuh ibu bekerja memiliki tingkat resiliensi tinggi (53,7%) dan tingkat stres pengasuhan (66,5%); terdapat hubungan antara resiliensi dan stres pengasuhan (p value = 0,001). Diskusi: Meningkatnya resiliensi pada ibu yang bekerja selama pandemi Covid-19 tidak menyebabkan stres pengasuhan.  Kesimpulan: Resiliensi yang tinggi perlu dipertahankan, salah satu upayanya dengan promosi kesehatan mental agar dapat menurunkan kondisi stres yang dialami ibu bekerja.

Kata Kunci: Covid-19, ibu bekerja, resiliensi, stres pengasuhan

 

Correlation Between Resilience and Parenting Stress in Working Mothers During the COVID-19 Pandemic

 

ABSTRACT

Women who are both mothers and working professionals are among the most affected individuals by changes in work activities during the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Resilience plays a crucial role in coping with challenging situations, making it one of the individual factors that working mothers rely on to avoid sustained psychological impacts. Objective: This research aims to identify the correlation between resilience and parenting stress in working mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This research employed a quantitative research design with a cross-sectional research design. It involved 296 respondents who met the criteria of being working mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic, having children aged 0-12 years, and residing in East Jakarta. Convenience/accidental sampling was used as the non-probability sampling method. The instruments used were the 14-item Resilience Scale and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Data analysis included univariate analysis with central tendency data display (numerical data), percentage frequency (categorical data), and bivariate analysis using chi-square tests. Results: The research findings showed that more than half of the working mothers had high levels of resilience (53.7%) and parenting stress (66.5%). There was a significant correlation between resilience and parenting stress (p-value = 0.001). Discussion: Increased resilience in working mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic did not lead to parenting stress. Conclusion: High resilience needs to be maintained, and one way to achieve this is through mental health promotion to reduce the stress experienced by working mothers.

Keywords: COVID-19, Parenting Stress, Resilience, Working Mothers


References


Afifah, L., Maryoto, M., & Susanto, A. (2021). Hubungan tingkat stres ibu dengan perilaku kekerasan pada anak usia sekolah dasar selama pandemi covid-19. Seminar Nasional Penelitian Dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (SNPPKM): 216–225.

Ali, M. S., & Jalal, H. (2018). Higher education as a predictor of employment: The world of work perspective. Bulletin of Education and Research, 40(2): 79–90.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Building your resilience. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/topics/resilience/building-your-resilience

Aqmarina, M. M. (2018). Perbandingan kepuasan pernikahan dan stres pengasuhan pada ibu bekerja dan ibu tidak bekerja dengan anak usia 0-5 tahun. [Master Tesis]. Program Studi Psikologi, Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Babore, A., Trumello, C., Lombardi, L., Candelori, C., Chirumbolo, A., Cattelino, E., Baiocco, R., …, & Morelli, M. (2021). Mothers’ and children’s mental health during the covid-19 pandemic lockdown: The mediating role of parenting stress. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 54(1): 134-146. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10578-021-01230-6

Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional. (2020). Map Indikator Angka Fertilitas Total/TFR Setiap Wilayah Provinsi (2020-2024). Retrieved from http://siperindu.online/index_indikator_wilayah.php

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2021). Profil Statistik Kesehatan 2021. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

Barroso, N. E., Mendez, L., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2018). Parenting stress through the lens of different clinical groups: A systematic review & meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3): 449-461. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10802-017-0313-6

Berry, J. O., & Jones, W. H. (1995). The parental stress scale: Initial psychometric evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12(3): 463–472. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407595123009

Deater-Deckard, K. (2004). Parenting stress (Current perspectives in psychology). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Dewi, E. (2021). Pengaruh stres dan kebosanan terhadap kinerja pegawai selama work from home [Undergraduate thesis]. Departemen Teknik Industri, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

Dotti, G. M. S., & Scherer, S. (2018). Maternal employment: Enabling factors in context. Work, Employment and Society, 32(1): 75–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017016677944

Fatwikiningsih, N., & Fajriyah, L. (2021). Perbedaan pola hubungan antara orang tua dan anak usia dini ditinjau dari tingkat stres pengasuhan pada masa pandemi covid-19. Journal Ashil: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 1(1): 20–36. https://doi.org/10.33367/piaud.v1i1.1518

Fletcher, D., & Sarkar, M. (2013). Psychological resilience: A review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory. European Psychologist, 18(1): 12–23. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000124.

Herrman, H., Stewart, D. E., Diaz-Granados, N., Berger, E. L., Jackson, B., & Yuen, T. (2011). What is resilience? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(5): 258–265. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371105600504

Hindun, H. (2019). Pendidikan, pendapatan nasional, dan penyerapan tenaga kerja di indonesia. JPEKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Ekonomi, Manajemen Dan Keuangan, 3(1): 15–22. https://doi.org/10.26740/JPEKA.V3N1.P15-22

Hutchings, J., Eade, J., Jones, K., & Bywater, T. J. (2004). Protocol of measures for the evaluation of the webster-stratton group parenting programme with parents of “at risk” pre-school children in sure start centres across wales. Bangor: University of Wales Bangor. http://www.incredibleyears.com/wp-content/uploads/protocol-of- measures-for-the-evaluation-sure-start.pdf

Ilias, K., Cornish, K., Kummar, A. S., Park, M. S.-A., & Golden, K. J. (2018). Parenting stress and resilience in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (asd) in southeast asia: A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 9: 280. https://doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2018.00280

Kemendagri RI (2022). Intruksi Menteri Dalam Negeri nomor 18 tahun 2022 tentang pemberlakuan pembatasan kegiatan masyarakat level 3, level 2, dan level 1 Corona virus disease 2019 di wilayah Jawa dan Bali. Retrieved from https://ditjenbinaadwil.kemendagri.go.id/download/file/INMENDAGRI_No18_Tahun_2022.pdf

Jones, L. B., Kiel, E. J., Luebbe, A. M., & Hay, M. C. (2022). Resilience in mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Family Psychology, 36(6): 815-826. https://doi.org/10.1037/FAM0000985

John-Henderson N.A., Ginty A.T. (2020). Historical Trauma and Social Support as Predictors of Psychological Stress Responses in American Indian Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic. J. Psychosom. Res, 139: 110263. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110263.

Kementerian Ketenagakerjaan Republik Indonesia. (2020). Ketenagakerjaan dalam data. Retrieved from https://satudata.kemnaker.go.id/files/Buku Kementerian Dalam Data 2021 Buat Web_1617259878.pdf

Kementerian Ketenagakerjaan Republik Indonesia. (2021).

Keputusan menteri ketenagakerjaan republik indonesia nomor 104 tahun 2021 - pedoman pelaksanaan hubungan kerja selama masa pandemi corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved from https://jdih.kemnaker.go.id/asset/data_puu/2021Kmnaker104.pdf

Keputusan Gubernur DKI Jakarta Nomor 1517 Tahun 2021 tentang Upah Minimum Provinsi tahun 2022. Retrieved from https://indolabourdatabase.files.wordpress.com/2022/01/keputusan-gubernur-dki-jakarta-nomor-1517-tahun-2021-tentang-upah-minimum-provinsi-tahun-2022..pdf

Lan Oo, B., Feng, X., & Teck-Heng Lim, B. (2019). Early career women in construction: career choice and barriers. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 601(1): 012021. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/601/1/012021

Lahav, Y. (2020). Psychological Distress Related to COVID-19–The Contribution of Continuous Traumatic Stress. J. Affect. Disord, 1(277), 129-137. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.141.

Lestari, S. (2012). Psikologi keluarga: Penanaman nilai dan penanaman konflik dalam keluarga (1st ed.). Jakarta: Kencana.

Levendosky, A. A., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (1998). The moderating effects of parenting stress on children’s adjustment in woman-abusing families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13(3): 383–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626098013003005

Lunanta, L. P., Hatta, A. R., Kristiyani, V., & Srifianti. (2021). Pengaruh parenting stress terhadap harga diri orang tua di jabodetabek. Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi MANASA, 10(1): 45–54. http://ejournal.atmajaya.ac.id/index.php/Manasa/article/view/2219/1224

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3): 543–562.

Maharani, A. P., & Panjaitan, R. U. (2019). Resiliensi dan hubungannya dengan tingkat stres orang tua yang memiliki anak penyandang autism spectrum disorder. Jurnal Ilmu Keperawatan Jiwa, 2(1): 47–54. https://journal.ppnijateng.org/index.php/jikj/article/view/295/175

Manalu, A., Rosyani, & Naingggolan, S. (2014). Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi wanita bekerja sebagai buruh harian lepas (bhl) di pt. inti indosawit subur muara bulian kecamatan maro sebo ilir kabupaten batanghari. Sosio Ekonomika Bisnis, 17(2): 82–93.

Marzilli, E., Cerniglia, L., Tambelli, R., Trombini, E., De Pascalis, L., Babore, A., Trumello, C., & Cimino, S. (2021). The covid-19 pandemic and its impact on families’ mental health: The role played by parenting stress, parents’ past trauma, and resilience. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 18: 11450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111450

Masyito, D. (2021). Hubungan dukungan sosial suami dan regulasi emosi dengan stres pengasuhan pada ibu bekerja di Desa Sutojayan Kota Pasuruan yang memiliki anak usia sekolah dasar belajar daring selama masa pandemi. [Undergraduate Thesis]. Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

Missasi, V., & Izzati, I. D. C. (2019). Faktor- faktor yang mempengaruhi resiliensi. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Magister Psikologi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, 433–441.

Nilakusmawati, D. P. E., & Susilawati, M. (2012). Studi faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi wanita bekerja di kota denpasar. Piramida, 8(1): 26–31.

Novitaningsih, A. B. (2009). Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ibu bekerja di sektor pertanian dan kontribusinya terhadap pendapatan: Studi kasus: kelurahan parang kecamatan parang, kabupaten magetan. [Undergraduate Tesis]. Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia.

Oshodi, O. S., Aigbavboa, C., Babatunde, O. K., & Arijeloye, B. T. (2020). Apprenticeship: A narrative review of factors influencing career choice of young people. The Construction Industry in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26528-1_10

Östberg, M., & Hagekull, B. (2000). A structural modeling approach to the understanding of parenting stress. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 29(4): 615–625. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP2904_13

Poduval, J., & Poduval, M. (2009). Working mothers: How much working, how much mothers, and where Is the womanhood? Mens Sana Monographs, 7(1): 63. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1229.41799

Putri, Q. D., Pradita, L., Zahra, L., Siregar, M. E. L., & Grasiaswaty, N. (2020). Gambaran stres kerja pada ibu pekerja selama pandemi covid-19. HEARTY : Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 8(2): 58–68. http://ejournal.uika-bogor.ac.id/index.php/Hearty/article/view/4565

Qian, G., Mei, J., Tian, L., & Dou, G. (2020). Assessing mothers’ parenting stress: Differences between one- and two-child families in china. Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 609715. https://doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2020.609715

Rajan A. M., John R. (2017). Resilience and Impact of Children’s Intellectual Disability on Indian Parents. J. Intellect. Disabil, 21: 315–324. doi: 10.1177/1744629516654588

Rahmah, A., & Khoirunnisa, R. N. (2021). Stres pada ibu yang bekerja selama pandemi covid-19. Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 8(4): 201–211. https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/character/article/view/41158

Rahmania, N., & Rizkillah, R. (2021). Efikasi diri, regulasi emosi, dan resiliensi pada ibu pekerja formal selama pandemi covid-19. [Undergraduate Thesis]. Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia.

Reivich, K., & Shatté, A. (2002). The resilience factor: 7 Keys to finding your inner strength and overcoming life’s hurdles. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Rizky, J., & Santoso, M. B. (2018). Faktor pendorong ibu bekerja sebagai k3l unpad. Prosiding Penelitian Dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 5(2): 158. https://doi.org/10.24198/jppm.v5i2.18367

Rosyani, C. R. (2012). Hubungan antara resiliensi dan coping pada pasien kanker dewasa. [Undergraduate thesis]. Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia.

Sitorus, F. H. D. (2020). Stres pada ibu bekerja. Psikologi Prima, 3(2): 71-91. https://doi.org/10.34012/PSYCHOPRIMA.V3I2.1412

Stuart, G. W. (2013). Principles and practice of psychiatric nursing, (10th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby.

Stier, D.M., Leventhal, J.M., Berg, A.T., Johnson L., & Mezger, J. (1993). Are children born to young mothers at increased risk of maltreatment? Pediatrics, 91, 642-648.

Syafiqoh, N. (2019). Analisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan ibu rumah tangga untuk bekerja di desa tangga bosi kecamatan siabu kabupaten mandailing natal. [Undergraduate thesis]. Program Studi Ekonomi Islam, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam, Universitas Islam Negeri Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

Wagnild, G. (2009). A review of the resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 17(2): 105–113. https://doi.org/10.1891/1061-3749.17.2.105

Wulandari, R., Rochaida, E., & Lestari, D. (2017). Faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan istri bekerja berdomisli di kelurahan sidodadi kecamatan samarinda ulu. Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Mulawarman (JIEM), 2(3). Retrieved from https://journal.feb.unmul.ac.id/index.php/JIEM/article/view/375




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v8i2.472

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 367 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) - 249 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Creative Commons License
Jurnal PPNI (P-ISSN: 2503-1376 ; E-ISSN: 2549-8576)