PERBANDINGAN EFEKTIVITAS WORKSHOP DENGAN KULIAH TERSTANDAR UNTUK MENURUNKAN STIGMA HIV/AIDS PADA MAHASISWA KEPERAWATAN

Anita Kustanti, Yanri Wijayanti, Ibrahim Rahmat

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Stigma merupakan salah satu kondisi yang menyebabkan kegagalan atau keterlambatan dalam menangani atau mendiagnosis HIV dan AIDS. Tujuan Penelitian: Mengidentifikasi stigma dan membandingkan efektivitas workshop serta kuliah terstandar terhadap stigma HIV/AIDS pada mahasiswa keperawatan. Metode: Penelitian merupakan quasi eksperimen dengan pre post test design with control group dilakukan terhadap 82 mahasiswa PSIK UGM semester 3 dan 5, terbagi menjadi 42 mahasiswa sebagai kelompok workshop dan 40 mahasiswa sebagai kelompok kuliah terstandar. Penelitian dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan menggunakan kuesioner skala stigma HIV/AIDS. Data dianalisis menggunakan chi square, unpaired t test dan paired t testHasil: Stigma terkait HIV/AIDS pada mahasiswa keperawatan berada pada kategori stigma tinggi (50%). Pada preintervensi tidak terdapat perbedaan stigma antara dua kelompok. Tidak terdapat efek intervensi workshop dan kuliah terstandar terhadap stigma terkait HIV/AIDS (masing-masing > 0,05). Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada perubahan domain pada kelompok workshop dibandingkan kelompok kuliah terstandar berdasarkan nilai mean yang didapatkan (p < 0,05). Diskusi: Banyaknya responden yang memiliki stigma tinggi menunjukkan adanya stigma eksternal terhadap ODHA. Kebijakan yang dibuat oleh perawat yang mendapatkan banyak pelatihan tentang HIV dan AIDS mempunyai prejudice lebih rendah daripada koleganya yang mempunyai lebih sedikit pelatihan. Workshop lebih dapat menurunkan stigma daripada intervensi kuliah terstandar karena workshop merupakan intervensi pembelajaran aktif yang tidak hanya melibatkan kognitif, tetapi juga perilaku yang dapat membangun rasa percaya diri untuk megubah perilakunya. Kesimpulan: Intervensi workshop lebih dapat menurunkan stigma daripada intervensi kuliah terstandar. Untuk penelitian selanjutnya, pengambilan data post-intervensi sebaiknya dilakukan dengan memberikan jeda waktu dengan memperhatikan retensi informasi pada responden.

Kata Kunci: HIV/AIDS, keperawatan, kuliah, mahasiswa, stigma, workshop

 

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Workshops and Standard Lectures in Reducing HIV/AIDS Stigma Among Nursing Students

 

ABSTRACT

Stigma is one condition that leads to failure or delay in addressing or diagnosing HIV and AIDS. Objective: To identify stigma and compare the effectiveness of workshops and standard lectures on HIV/AIDS stigma among nursing students. Methods: The research employed a quasi-experimental design with a pre-post test design and a control group, conducted on 82 third and fifth-semester students of the Nursing Science Study Program UGM, divided into 42 students as the workshop group and 40 as the standard lecture group. The research was conducted over three months using an HIV/AIDS stigma scale questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square, unpaired t-test, and paired t-test. Results: HIV/AIDS-related stigma among nursing students was in the high stigma category (50%). Prior to the intervention, there was no difference in stigma between the two groups. There was no intervention effect of workshops and standard lectures on HIV/AIDS-related stigma (both p>0.05). There was a significant difference in the change in domains between the workshop group and the standard lecture group based on the mean values obtained (p<0.05). Discussion: The high number of respondents with high stigma indicates external stigma towards PLWHA. Policies made by nurses who receive extensive training on HIV and AIDS have lower prejudice compared to their colleagues with less training. Workshops can reduce stigma more effectively than standard lecture interventions because workshops are active learning interventions that involve not only cognition but also behavior, which can build self-confidence to change behavior. Conclusion: Workshop interventions can reduce stigma more effectively than standard lecture interventions. Post-intervention data should be collected with a time gap for future research, considering respondents' information retention.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Nursing, Lecture, Students, Stigma, Workshop


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v8i2.456

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