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GLUKOSA DAN MORTALITAS PASIEN CEDERA KEPALA

Galvani Volta Simanjuntak, Amila Amila, Janno Sinaga

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Cedera kepala merupakan jenis trauma yang paling sering menyebabkan kematian dan kecacatan sehingga pengenalan indikator prognostik sangat penting untuk meningkatkan hasil.  Namun masih terdapat perbedaan hasil penelitian mengenai kadar glukosa dan peningkatan risiko mortalitas pada pasien cedera kepala.  Tujuan: studi pendahuluan ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi hubungan kadar gula darah dengan kematian pasien cedera kepala. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian case-control dengan pendekatan retrospektif. Populasi penelitian adalah rekam medis pasien dewasa yang mengalami cedera kepala pada Januari-Desember 2018 di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat H. Adam Malik Medan.  Sampel penelitian sebanyak 88 rekam medis. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah chi square test. Hasil: Hasil penelitian didapatkan 68,2% berjenis kelamin laki-laki, 79,5% berusia <45 tahun, mortalitas pasien dengan kadar gula darah >200 mg/dL sebesar 70%, sedangkan mortalitas pasien dengan kadar gula darah ≤200 mg/dL sebesar 33,3%. Ada hubungan kadar gula terhadap mortalitas pasien cedera kepala (p=0,001, OR=1,654). Diskusi: Peningkatan kadar gula darah dapat menyebabkan kerusakan otak yang luas dan berkaitan dengan prognosis buruk.  Simpulan. Kadar gula darah tinggi berhubungan dengan peningkatan risiko kematian pasien cedera kepala. Disarankan untuk melakukan penelitian dengan kelompok pasien yang lebih besar sehingga manfaat potensial dari kontrol glukosa pada cedera kepala dapat diketahui dengan benar.

Kata Kunci: Cedera Kepala, Glukosa, Mortalitas

Glucose and Mortality in Patients with Head Injury

ABSTRACT

Background: Head injury is a type of trauma that most frequently causes mortality and disability, so it is essential to introduce prognostic indicators to improve outcomes. However, there are still differences in studies regarding glucose levels and increased risk of mortality in patients with head injury. Objective: This preliminary study aims to identify the correlation between blood sugar levels and mortality in patients with head injury. Methods: This study is a case-control study using a retrospective approach. The population was medical records of adult patients who suffered head injuries in January-December 2018 at the H. Adam Malik Central General Hospital of Medan. The research samples were 88 medical records. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: The study results indicated that 68.2% were male, 79.5% were aged <45 years, mortality of patients with blood sugar levels of >200 mg/dL was 70%, while mortality of patients with blood sugar levels ≤200 mg/dL was 33.3%. There was a correlation between blood sugar levels and mortality in patients with head injury (p=0.001, OR=1.654). Discussion: Elevated blood sugar levels may cause extensive brain damage and are associated with a poor prognosis. Conclusion: High blood sugar levels are correlated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with head injury. It is recommended to conduct further studies with a larger group of patients to properly identify the potential benefits of glucose control in head injury.

Keywords: Head Injury, Glucose, Mortality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v6i2.308

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Jurnal PPNI (P-ISSN: 2503-1376 ; E-ISSN: 2549-8576)