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EFIKASI DIRI IBU YANG MEMILIKI BAYI BERAT LAHIR RENDAH DENGAN DUKUNGAN SOSIAL DAN GEJALA DEPRESI

Ana Permatasari, Elsi Dwi Hapsari, Wiwin Lismidiati

Abstract


Kondisi bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR) berdampak pada efikasi diri maternal. Di Indonesia masih sedikit laporan mengenai efikasi diri maternal dikaitkan dengan dukungan sosial dan gejala depresi pada ibu yang memiliki BBLR.  Tujuan: mengetahui hubungan efikasi diri ibu dengan dukungan sosial dan gejala depresi pada ibu postpartum primipara yang memiliki BBLR (ibu-BBLR) dibandingkan ibu yang memiliki BBLN (ibu-BBLN) di RS PKU Muhammadiyah Gombong.  Metode: penelitian kuantitatif dengan jenis penelitian cross sectional. Sampel dipilih dengan teknik consecutive sampling.  Responden berjumlah 90 orang, meliputi 45 ibu-BBLR dan 45 ibu-BBLN.  Pengambilan data pada Januari-Maret 2015 menggunakan kuesioner Perceived Maternal Parenting Self Efficacy (PMP-SE), dukungan sosial, dan Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale yang telah valid dan reliabel.  Data dianalisis dengan uji t tidak berpasangan and Chi-square test.  Hasil: Tingkat efikasi diri berbeda secara bermakna antara ibu-BBLR dan ibu-BBLN (p=0,07).  Kedua kelompok menerima tingkat dukungan sosial yang tinggi (masing-masing 97,8%).  Gejala depresi postpartum lebih banyak dialami oleh ibu-BBLR dibanding ibu-BBLN (17,8% vs 13,3%).  Tidak ada hubungan antara efikasi diri dengan dukungan sosial (p=0,28) dan gejala depresi pada ibu-BBLR (p=57).  Ada hubungan yang bermakna antara efikasi diri dengan dukungan sosial (p=0,04), namun tidak dengan gejala depresi postpartum (p=0,83), pada ibu-BBLN.  Diskusi: Ibu-BBLR menunjukkan tingkat kepercayaan diri yang lebih rendah dibanding ibu-BBLN meskipun sama-sama melaporkan mendapatkan dukungan sosial yang tinggi dan tidak ada perbedaan dalam gejala depresi postpartum.  Kesimpulan: diharapkan tenaga kesahatan memberikan dukungan sosial  dan mendeteksi gejala depresi pada ibu-BBLR.  Ibu postpartum diharapkan memanfaatkan sumber-sumber dukungan sosial yang ada di sekitarnya dan mengelola stres atau kecemasan yang dialami.

Kata Kunci: bayi berat lahir rendah, depresi, dukungan sosial, efikasi diri maternal, postpartum

 

Self-Efficacy of Women Who Have Low Birth Weight Babies with Social Support and Depression Symptoms 

 

ABSTRACT

The condition of low birth weight (LBW) babies affects maternal self-efficacy. In Indonesia, there are still few reports of maternal self-efficacy correlated with social support and depression symptoms in mothers who have low birth weight. Objective: to reveal the correlation of maternal self-efficacy with social support and depression symptoms in primiparous postpartum mothers who have LBW babies (LBW mothers) compared to mothers who have NBW babies (NBW mothers) at PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital of Gombong. Methods: This research is quantitative with cross sectional research type. Samples were selected by using consecutive sampling technique. There were 90 respondents, including 45 LBWB mothers and 45 NBWB mothers. Data were collected from January until March 2015 using the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self Efficacy (PMP-SE) questionnaire, social support, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale which were valid and reliable. Data were analyzed using the unpaired t test and the Chi-square test. Results: The level of self-efficacy was significantly different between LBWB mothers and NBWB mothers (p=0.07). Both groups received high levels of social support (97.8% each). Postpartum depression symptoms were more experienced by LBWB mothers than by NBWB mothers (17.8% vs 13.3%). There was no correlation between self-efficacy and social support (p=0.28) and depression symptoms in LBWB mothers (p=57). There was a significant correlation between self-efficacy and social support (p=0.04), but not with symptoms of postpartum depression (p=0.83), in NBWB mothers. Discussion: LBWB mothers showed lower self-confidence than LBWB mothers although they both reported getting high social support and there was no difference in symptoms of postpartum depression. Conclusion: It is expected that health workers provide social support and detect depression symptoms in LBWB mothers. Postpartum mothers are expected to take advantage of the sources of social support that exist around them and manage their stress or anxiety.

Keywords: low birth weight babies, depression, social support, maternal self-efficacy, postpartum


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v5i3.307

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