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MAKNA BEBAN DAN SUMBER DUKUNGAN KELUARGA DALAM MERAWAT ANAK AUTIS: STUDI FENOMENOLOGI

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Abstract


ABSTRAK
Autisme didefi nisikan sebagai suatu gangguan perkembangan yang kompleks menyangkut
komunikasi, interaksi sosial, dan aktivitas imajinasi. Anak penyandang autis mempunyai masalah
gangguan dalam bidang komunikasi, interaksi sosial, sensoris, pola bermain, perilaku, dan emosi.
Orangtua yang memiliki anak penyandang autis pasti tampak berbeda dari orangtua lainnya.
Keberadaan anak autis dengan perilakunya di dalam keluarga menimbulkan stressor tersendiri
bagi setiap anggota keluarganya. Tujuan penelitian: menguraikan secara mendalam pengalaman
keluarga tentang beban dan sumber dukungan keluarga serta makna dalam merawat anak autis.
Metode: Desain penelitian metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Teknik pengambilan
partisipan dilakukan secara purposive sampling. Sebanyak enam partisipan berpartisipasi pada
penelitian ini. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara teknik wawancara mendalam (indepth
interview) dan menggunakan catatan lapangan ( fi eld note). Hasil wawancara mendalam dan catatan
lapangan dianalisis menggunakan metode Colaizzi. Hasil: hasil penelitian penelitian mengidentifi kasi
tujuh tema, yaitu beban psikologis, beban fi nansial, dukungan sosial, dukungan keluarga, perhatian
tanpa pamrih, kecewa terhadap pemberi dukungan, dan takdir. Diskusi: Rekomendasi penelitian
adalah perawat dapat meningkatkan kompetensi dalam melakukan pengkajian terhadap kebutuhan
keluarga dalam merawat klien dengan autis sehingga semakin tepat dalam memberikan intervensi
kepada keluarga terutama untuk meningkatkan kemampuan dan meminimalkan beban yang
dirasakan keluarga anak dengan autis.
Kata Kunci: anak autis, keluarga, beban, sumber dukungan.
ABSTRACT
Autism is de fi ned as a complex developmental disorder that includes communication, social interaction
and imaginative activities. Children with autism have problems in communication, social interaction,
sensory processing disorder, play patterns, behaviors and emotions. Parents who have a child with
autism will be different from the other parents in every aspect. The existence of a child with autism
and his/her behavior are stressor for each member of the family. Objectives: This study is aimed
at explain in depth about family’s experience of burden and source of support and their signifi cance
family in caring for children with autism. Methods: This study employed qualitative method with
phenomenological approach. Six participants were taken using purposive sampling. Data were
collected through in-depth interviews and using fi eld notes. The results of in-depth interviews and
fi eld notes were analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. Results: The results of the study identifi ed seven
themes, namely psychological burden, fi nancial burden, social support, family support, selfl ess
attention, disappointment over support giver, and destiny. Discussion: This study recommends that
nurses improve their competence in assessing the needs of family in caring for clients with autism.
So that they will provide interventions more precisely to family, particularly to increase competence
and to minimize the burden carried by families of children with autism
Keywords: children with autism, family, burden, source of support.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v1i2.27

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Jurnal PPNI (P-ISSN: 2503-1376 ; E-ISSN: 2549-8576)