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CROSS CULTURAL SKALA STIGMA TERKAIT HIV/AIDS PADA MAHASISWA KEPERAWATAN

Anita Kustanti, Yanri Wijayanti, Ibrahim Rahmat

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Latar belakang: Stigma dapat menyebabkan kegagalan atau keterlambatan dalam menangani atau
mendiagnosis HIV dan AIDS. Salah satu visi UNAIDS ialah zero stigma. Perawat harus mampu
memberikan pelayanan keperawatan bebas stigma dan diskriminasi. Isu nasional yang disarankan oleh
HPEQ (2012) kepada institusi penyelenggara pendidikan keperawatan 20 persen di antaranya tentang
perawatan HIV/AIDS. Namun, terdapat keterbatasan alat ukur kuantitatif untuk mengkaji manifestasi
stigma terkait HIV/AIDS pada mahasiswa keperawatan. Tujuan: Melakukan pengembangan instrumen
dengan adaptasi cross cultural dan uji validasi skala stigma sesuai dengan budaya mahasiswa Program
Studi Ilmu Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada. Instrumen ini merupakan adaptasi SHASS yang
dikembangkan oleh Diaz dan Neilands (2009). Metode: Deskriptif dengan desain cross sectional,
melibatkan 77 responden, dilakukan bulan Juli–September 2015. Uji validitas dengan product moment,
uji reliabilitas dengan menggunakan Cronbach’s Alpha. Hasil: 11 domain stigma HIV/AIDS yang terdiri
atas 39 pertanyaan menunjukan valid dan reliable dengan nilai r >0,2 dan nilai alpha > 0,7. Diskusi:
Pengembangan instrumen dengan adaptasi cross cultural mempunyai beberapa kelebihan; peneliti
melakukan adaptasi dan modifi kasi dari instrumen yang sudah pernah dilakukan uji validitas dan reliabilitas
sebelumnya di negara lain. Keterbatasan penelitian ini hanya melibatkan mahasiswa ilmu keperawatan.
Kesimpulan: Skala stigma terkait HIV/AIDS adaptasi dari Spanish HIV Stigma Scale (SHASS) dapat
digunakan sebagai instrumen kuantitatif pada mahasiswa Program Studi Ilmu Keperawatan.
Kata Kunci: cross cultural, stigma HIV/AIDS, mahasiswa ilmu keperawatan.
ABSTRACT
Background: Stigma can lead to failure or delay in handling or diagnosing HIV and AIDS. One visions
of UNAIDS is zero stigma. Nurses have to be able to provide stigma and discrimination-free nursing
services. HPEQ (2012) recommends that institutions of nursing education provide 20% of national issues
concerning HIV/AIDS care. However, there are limitations on quantitative instruments to assess the
manifestation of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in students nursing. Objectives: To develop an instrument
by employing cross-cultural adaptation and validity test for stigma scale in accordance with the culture
of students of Nursing Science Program, Universitas Gadjah Mada. This instrument is an adaptation of
SHASS developed by Diaz and Neilands (2009). Methods: This study employed descriptive method with
cross sectional design. It involved 77 respondents and was conducted from July to September 2015. The
validity test employed product moment and the reliability test employed Cronbach’s Alpha. Results: 11
domains of HIV/AIDS-related stigma, which consisted of 39 questions, indicated that the instrument was
valid and reliable with an r value of >0.2 and an alpha value of>0.7. Discussion: The development of an
instrument by employing cross-cultural adaptation has several advantages; the researchers adapted to
and modifi ed instruments of which their validity and reliability were previously tested in other countries.
A limitation of this study is that it only involved students of nursing science. Conclusion: HIV/AIDSrelated stigma scale adapted from the Spanish HIV Stigma Scale (SHASS) can be used as a quantitative
instrument in students of Nursing Science Program.
Keywords: cross-cultural, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, students of nursing science.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v1i2.23

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Jurnal PPNI (P-ISSN: 2503-1376 ; E-ISSN: 2549-8576)