FAKTOR RISIKO STROKE PADA USIA PRODUKTIF DI RUMAH SAKIT STROKE NASIONAL (RSSN) BUKIT TINGGI

Hendri Budi, Indrawati Bahar, Heppi Sasmita

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Tujuan: mengetahui faktor risiko yang menyebabkan stroke hemoragik dan iskemik pada pasien usia produktif di RSSN Bukittinggi. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini deskriptif observasional dengan desain cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di RSSN Bukittinggi pada April sampai Oktober 2015. Populasinya seluruh pasien stroke yang dirawat di ruangan saraf berjumlah 2.132 pasien. Sampel berjumlah 77 orang yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi, dipilih dengan cara purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data menggunakan studi dokumentasi. Instrumen menggunakan daftar checklist tentang faktor risiko stroke yang dapat dimiliki pasien. Analisis data menggunakan statistik deskriptif, uji t independent, chi square dan multivariate regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian: 58,4% pasien stroke berjenis kelamin laki-laki; 97,4% berumur dewasa tua (36-59 tahun), 28,6% pekerjaan ibu rumah tangga; 68,8% stroke iskemik, 13,2% diantaranya berusia 21-45 tahun; 39,6% berusia 56-59 tahun; 31,2% stroke hemoragik, 29,2% diantaranya berusia 21-45 tahun, 37,5% berusia 51-55 tahun. Faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan stroke iskemik yaitu hipertensi (p value=0,012), kurang olah raga (p value=0,008), dan pola makan banyak lemak (p value=0,029). Faktor yang paling berpengaruh adalah hipertensi (p value=0,052). Faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan stroke hemoragik yaitu hipertensi (p value=0,016). Kesimpulan: Pada pasien usia produktif, stroke iskemik disebabkan oleh riwayat hipertensi, kurang olah raga dan pola makan banyak lemak, dan faktor yang paling berpengaruh yaitu riwayat kurang olah raga, sedangkan stroke hemoragik disebabkan oleh adanya riwayat hipertensi. Disarankan kepada manajemen perawatan dan perawat agar melaksanakan pendidikan kesehatan yang berfokus pada penatalaksanaan pasien hipertensi, modifiasi gaya hidup dan discharge planning terkait faktor risiko stroke kepada pasien dan keluarga.
Kata Kunci: Faktor risiko, stroke iskemik, stroke hemoragik

Risk Factors of Stroke in Productive Age at National Stroke Hospital (Rssn) Bukit Tinggi

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the risk factors that cause hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in productive age patients at RSSN Bukittinggi. Method: Type of research was observational descriptive with crosssectional design. The study was conducted at RSSN Bukittinggi on April to October 2015. The population was all stroke patients treated in the nerve ward totaling 2,132 patients. Samples were 77 people who met the inclusion criteria obtained by purposive sampling. Data collection used documentation study. The instrument is a checklist of stroke risk factors that a patient could have. Data analysis using descriptive statistics, independent t test and chi square test and multivariate logistic regression. Results: 58.4% of stroke patients were male, 97.4% were elderly adults (36-59 years), 28.6% were housewives, 68.8% of ischemic strokes 13.2% were aged 21 -45 years, 39.6% were 56 -59 years. 31.2% of hemorrhagic strokes 29.2% of them aged 21-45 years, 37.5% aged 51-55 years. Risk factors associated with ischemic stroke are hypertension (p value:0.012), lack of exercise (p value:0.008), and eating a lot of fat (p value:0.029). The most influential factor is hypertension (p value:0.052). Risk factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke are hypertension (p value:0.016). Conclusion: In patients of productive age, ischemic stroke is caused by a history of hypertension, lack of exercise and eating a lot of fat, and the most influential factor is a history of lack of exercise, whereas hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a history of hypertension. It is recommended to care management and nurses to carry out health education that focuses on the management of hypertensive patients, lifestyle modification and discharge planning related to stroke risk factors to patients and families. Keywords: Risk factors, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke



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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v3i3.163

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Jurnal PPNI (P-ISSN: 2503-1376 ; E-ISSN: 2549-8576)